#### Formative Assessment

All of those activities undertaken by teachers and/or by their students, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged (Black and Wiliam 1998).  Formative assessment can be viewed as having two parts: checking for understanding and an action taken based on that check.  Both parts can be accomplished by both teachers and students. However, the teacher usually orchestrates effective formative assessment.